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  • ACEA Biosciences

    ACEA Biosciences’ mission is to provide innovative high performance technologies that advance scientific discovery and improve healthcare.

    Founded in 2002, ACEA Biosciences, Inc. is a privately owned biotechnology company that is pioneering the development and commercialization of high performance, cutting edge cell analysis instruments for life science research and clinical diagnostics.

    Employing noninvasive impedance microelectrodes in automated high-throughput plate formats, our xCELLigence® Real-Time Cell Analysis (RTCA) instruments maximize the physiological relevance of data extracted from in vitro cellular assays. These instruments enable label-free, real-time monitoring of cell proliferation, cell size/morphology, cell-substrate attachment quality, and cell invasion/migration. By eliminating the time- and labor-intensive steps of traditional methods, RTCA vastly improves efficiency and overall productivity. Moreover, the flexibility, sensitivity, and reproducibility of RTCA make it a standout amongst cell-based assay platforms.

    ACEA is also helping to revolutionize the field of flow cytometry by designing and producing high performance, customizable benchtop cytometers at accessible price points. By including features such as 13 fluorescence detection channels with 3 lasers, direct volumetric based cell counting, and a versatile high throughput walkaway autosampler, ACEA’s line of NovoCyte flow cytometers is raising the bar for what is expected of benchtop machines.

    xCELLigence® and NovoCyte instruments are currently being used worldwide in academic, industrial, and hospital labs for preclinical drug discovery and development, toxicology, safety pharmacology, disease studies, clinical diagnostics, and basic research.


International Conference and Expo on Medical Virology & Infectious Diseases, will be organized around the theme “Current concepts and research trends in the field of medical virology”

Medical Virology 2017 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Medical Virology 2017

Submit your abstract to any of the mentioned tracks.

Register now for the conference by choosing an appropriate package suitable to you.

Encased viral genome with protein pierces which is mimic molecule of host in order to bind and gain entry into host cell and followed by specific immunological responses and target destination.  Protein pierces facilitates antigenic surfaces to recognize by immune system

  • Track 1-1Rubella Virus
  • Track 1-2Heregulin/Neuregulin
  • Track 1-3Toxoplasma Gondii
  • Track 1-4Apo Transferrin (ATF)
  • Track 1-5Human T-Lymphocyte Virus
  • Track 1-6Herpes Simplex
  • Track 1-7Cytomegalo Virus
  • Track 1-8Hepatitis

Contemporary management of infectious viruses such as HIV, Ebola virus, Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV), Hepatitis, Flu are  catering a new way for the integration of molecular techniques into management of chronic viral infections. Such progresses are not only emphasizing the use of diagnostic virology also amendment the field of molecular technologies in virology.  

  • Track 2-1Reverse transcription
  • Track 2-2Integrase
  • Track 2-3Transcription
  • Track 2-4Translation
  • Track 2-5Protease inhibitors
  • Track 2-6PCR analysis
  • Track 2-7Receptor-Targeted Delivery
  • Track 2-8Receptor-Targeted Imaging
  • Track 2-9Uncoating inhibitor

Diagnosis of viruses and viral infections applying to clinical medicine is will not meet the needs, to emphasize to extent in excellence being amendment of patient care by which means identification of viruses. Virus isolation through tissue culture, ELISA, immunofluorescence based assay and other molecular techniques to determine DNA and RNA have been using successful established methods. To overcome limitations of techniques which are in use, advanced techniques are constantly being explored. 

  • Track 3-1Micro-plate ELISA
  • Track 3-2CMV DEAFF Test
  • Track 3-3Detection of IgM Antibodies
  • Track 3-4Immunofluorescence Assays
  • Track 3-5Viral Capsid Antigen
  • Track 3-6Blood Mononuclear Cells Culture

Diagnosis of viral infections is essential and now it can be considered fundamental for medical practices. There are distinctive methods, including viral culture, antigen detection, nucleic acid detection, and serology. Which results in, breath-taking breakthrough in antiviral therapeutics has been increasing the need for specific viral diagnoses. Nucleic acid chemistry is providing emerging tools as a result of technological development. Day by day most of the patients are of at risk due to the opportunistic infections of epidemic viruses such as HIV/AIDS, Coronaviruses (MERS-CoV, SARS), Zika Virus, Influenza (seasonal, pandemic), Ebola Virus, HPV, Smallpox and human monkeypox.

  • Track 4-1Molecular Analysis
  • Track 4-2Antibody Assays
  • Track 4-3Cultivation of Viruses
  • Track 4-4Viral Reservoirs
  • Track 4-5PCR analysis
  • Track 4-6Emerging Serology Techniques
  • Track 4-7Isolation of Viruses
  • Track 4-8Indirect Examination of viruses
  • Track 4-9Direct Demonstration of Viruses
  • Track 4-10Fundamental Serology Techniques
  • Track 4-11Toxicity and Bio-distribution
  • Track 4-12Immune Stimulation

We know that viruses are obligatory and intracellular parasites, since that replication requires the pathways and functions of the host cell. As a consequence, it is laborious to characterize specific functions of infectious viruses as god enough targets for anti-infective therapy. Nevertheless, in the past 50 years significant progress has been made towards the development of effective and specific antivirals. Particularly, HIV, Hepatitis type B & C viruses, which are of causing chronic infections and those are affecting millions of mankind world-wide, are a extensive spotlight of research in antivirals. Earlier these antivirals were directed against virus-specific enzymes but nowadays research. Initially, antivirals were mainly directed against virus-specific enzymes; currently, drugs are inhibiting the steps of infectious viral entry or release has been developed. Enlightened paths towards drug development have become progressive successful as a result of characterization structure and function of viral proteins and molecular mechanisms of virus-host interactions. Innovative strategies are exploring in essential research or preclinical studies including paths to target host factors those are important for replication of infectious virus, exploitation of the innate immune response system along with utilisation of gene silencing strategies targeting at meddlesome with the gene expression of infectious virus. Nowadays various virostatics targeting various viral replication steps are approved to treat critical infectious viral diseases. Even though, the employment of such drugs is finite by the swift development of antiviral resistance, which results a substantial complications of contemporary antiviral therapy.

  • Track 5-1Antiviral drug
  • Track 5-2VTAs (Virus-targeting antivirals)
  • Track 5-3HTAs (Host-targeting antivirals)
  • Track 5-4Antiviral mechanisms of human defensins
  • Track 5-5Antiviral drug resistance

Waterborne enteric Viruses belongs to such as reovirus, rotavirus, poliovirus, coxsackievirus, echovirus, enterovirus, hepatitis A virus,  Norwalk virus, astrovirus, calicivirus, Snow Mountain agent, small round structured virus,  adenovirus strains 3, 7, 40, and 41 are threatening not only animal health also to mankind’s health. Extensive research has documented the risk of infectious viruses, are of host specific those are of cause wide range of diseases such as ocular and respiratory infections to gastroenteritis, hepatitis, myocarditis, and aseptic meningitis; in almost living beings from contact with contaminated water, current methods that which is bacterial indicator base of evaluation quality of water, are often ineffectual proxies for infectious viruses. RNA viruses are of causing gastroenteritis with diarrhea and/or vomiting, fever. Rotavirus is causative agent for gastroenteritis. With progressive molecular analysis, infectious viruses from key host groups should be targeted directly by using either PCR amplification or hybridization with a high level of sensitivity and specificity. Analysis which provides information about multispecies to control and determine, based on loading and exposure of infectious virus to evaluate potential risks to animal health and could indicate the potential for the presence of other zoonotic infectious organisms. Need to be better understanding of prevalence and environmental distribution of nonhuman enteric viruses, emerging of advanced sensitive methods for specific analysis will facilitates the utilisation of microbes for library independent source tracking and assessment tools for water quality.

  • Track 6-1Gene chips
  • Track 6-2Docking proteins, antibodies, and genetic sequences
  • Track 6-3Nitrocellulose enzyme immune-sorbent assay (NC-EIA)
  • Track 6-4Hybridization or antibody-based assays
  • Track 6-5ELISA
  • Track 6-6Most-Probable-Number (MPN)–PCR
  • Track 6-7RT-PCR
  • Track 6-8Plaque forming units (PFU)

Viral Biotechnology interdisciplinary of Biotechnology is a scientific and research field having extensive scope, which is using research tools from biochemistry and molecular biology to characterise and solve problems such as infectious diseases being caused by viruses. Biotechnologists are being used to study the genetic material of viruses including other distinct microbial machinery to understand factors that are contributing to human diseases.  Emerging technologies can be used to develop diagnostic tests that enable sensitive and quick analysis and characterisation of the viral infectious diseases leads to develop dynamic treatments and methodologies

  • Track 7-1Skin and Soft Tissue Infections
  • Track 7-2Viral Infections with Bacteria
  • Track 7-3Viral Infections With Fungi
  • Track 7-4Opportunistic Infectious Pathogens
  • Track 7-5Burkitts Lymphoma
  • Track 7-6Polyparasitism
  • Track 7-7Congenital Infections
  • Track 7-8Perinatal Infections
  • Track 7-9Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Track 7-10Central Nervous System Infections
  • Track 7-11Eye Infections
  • Track 7-12Urinary Tract Infections
  • Track 7-13Gastrointestinal Tract Infections
  • Track 7-14Respiratory Tract Infections
  • Track 7-15Hemorrhagic Fever
The global animal healthcare market was esteemed at USD 27,861.2 million in 2013 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 7.1% from 2014 to 2019, to achieve an expected estimation of USD 41,929.1 million in 2019.
Veterinary virology is the study of viruses in animals. It is an important branch of veterinary medicine. An emerging virus is a term applied to a newly discovered virus, one that is increasing in incidence or with the potential to increase in incidence. Zoonotic diseases/infections are those which can be naturally transmissible from vertebrate animals to humans. Prion disease represents a group of conditions that affect the nervous system in humans and animals.
  • Track 8-1Rhabdoviruses
  • Track 8-2Bluetongue Virus
  • Track 8-3Flaviviruses
  • Track 8-4Toroviruses
  • Track 8-5Circoviruses
  • Track 8-6Arteriviruses
  • Track 8-7Paramyxoviruses
  • Track 8-8Influenza
  • Track 8-9Herpesviruses
  • Track 8-10Parvovirus
  • Track 8-11Foot-and-mouth disease virus
  • Track 8-12Avian Influenza
  • Track 8-13Retroviruses
  • Track 8-14Swine Influenza
  • Track 8-15African Swine Fever Virus
  • Track 8-16Coronaviruses

As per the World Health Organization (WHO) records, nearly 20% of the cancers in the world as a result of chronic infections, in developing countries roughly 15% of human cancers  are characterised and with higher incidence of viruses only. Since past century relation between viruses and cancer is one of the crucial discoveries in cancer research. As a result of key observations in the infectious nature of particular cancers are having extensive significance in prevention, diagnosis, and therapeutics. Nowadays research in viral oncology area continues to be brisk, including novel significance and primitive studies of viral oncogenesis and translational research from basic virology to treat cancers of infectious cancers. 


  • Track 9-1Parainfluenza Viruses
  • Track 9-2Viral oncogenetic mechanisms
  • Track 9-3Direct immunogens
  • Track 9-4Cellular Pathogenesis
  • Track 9-5Human Oncogenic DNA viruses
  • Track 9-6Animal oncogenic DNA viruses
  • Track 9-7Human oncogenic RNA viruses
  • Track 9-8Animal oncogenic RNA viruses

Viral Immunology is delivering the cutting-edge focus on translational research on unusual, emerging, and under-studied infectious viruses, with exceptional focus on analysing mutual relationships among external viruses and internal immunity, including the role of innate and adaptive immunity in the establishment, containment and/or breakthrough of infectious diseases of viruses, which is resulting as a cancer, includes vaccine and adjuvants strategies.

  • Track 10-1Restriction factors
  • Track 10-2Antibodies
  • Track 10-3Interferons
  • Track 10-4Cytokines
  • Track 10-5Apoptosis & Innate immunity
  • Track 10-6Viral immune evasion

Paediatric infectious disease is not an isolated discipline. Rather, the syndromes associated with viral infection are modified by the unique characteristics of infancy and childhood. Fortunately for the pediatrician, and certainly for children, viral infections in childhood are rarely fatal, and are almost never serious. Future efforts of the pediatrician and virologist should be directed toward increased fetal salvage as with rubella and the prevention of severe, viral lower respiratory tract disease.

  • Track 11-1Respiratory Disease of Viral Etiology
  • Track 11-2Viral Respiratory Disease in Children
  • Track 11-3Viral Infections of the Fetus and Newborn

Transmission of viruses is the process by where viruses will spread between the hosts, including either members of the similar hosts or spread to different species in case of viruses can cross beyond the species barriers, which results in emerging new diseases are threat to health of people.

  • Track 12-1Virus Host Interactions
  • Track 12-2Transmission of virus
  • Track 12-3Environmental and demographic Barriers for viral transmission
  • Track 12-4Ecological barriers for viral transmission
  • Track 12-5Host barriers for viral transmission
  • Track 12-6Extant host range as a factor for viral Transmission
  • Track 12-7Adaptation of post transmission of viruses
  • Track 12-8Evolution of viruses

Clinical Virology is interdisciplinary of virology/medical virology and healthcare science which characterise resolve the safety and efficacy of medications, devices, diagnostic products and treatment regimens intended for mankind, which can be utilise for prevention, treatment & diagnose for alleviate the infectious viral diseases. When comparing with clinical practice, clinical research is distinct that which gives evidences collected results to found therapeutic approaches for infectious viral diseases. The human immunodeficiency virus is a lentivirus(subgroup of retroviruses) that causes HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV diagnosis is done by testing your blood or saliva for antibodies to the virus. HIV/AIDS clinical trials are research studies done to look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat HIV/AIDS. Clinical Trials are the fastest way to determine if new medical approaches to HIV/AIDS are safe and effective in people.

  • Track 13-1Anti Viral Agents and Treatments
  • Track 13-2RNA Silencing in Virology
  • Track 13-3Swine flu outbreak,Prevention & Treatment
  • Track 13-4Vector and Blood born Diseases & Molecular Diagnosis of CNS Viral Infections
  • Track 13-5Clinical Viral Diagnostics
  • Track 13-6Vaccines: Advancements
  • Track 13-7Immunopathology
  • Track 13-8Immunohistochemistry
  • Track 13-9Anatomical Pathology
  • Track 13-10New Innovations in Viral Infections
  • Track 13-11Novel Research in Clinical Virology
  • Track 13-12Clinical Course of Viral Infections
  • Track 13-13Control of Pathogens Viruses in Agriculture & Medicine

Molecular Virology:

Molecular Virology, which deals with molecular level of biochemistry of viruses and how they replicate in host cells. Viruses can infect the all forms of microorganisms to animals and plants, which results viruses have extent biological diversity than Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi and Animalia. This field leads to understand how new viruses are emerging, interacting with hosts and causes of infectious diseases. It helps in the study and construction of viral vectors by converging with r-DNA or recombinant DNA technology  which can be develop the new traits of agricultural and medicinal plants, domestic animals and beneficial microorganisms, those which can meet the needs of wellbeing of human.

  • Track 14-1Systems Virology
  • Track 14-2Simian Virology
  • Track 14-3Infection and Transmission of Viruses
  • Track 14-4Viral Nano Particles
  • Track 14-5Viral Like Particles
  • Track 14-6Viral Biotechnology
  • Track 14-7Genome Sequencing

Context of the propagative research of infectious virus: prompting the utilization of progressive technologies and methodologies to overcoming impediment challenges and risk to mankind by collaborating the translation and exchange of emerging ideas and advancements. Focus to develop the field of medical virology by promoting progressive technologies and convergence areas of research that have not been utilised previously. Blending with distinct research fields results in progressive approaches to work on infectious diseases caused by viruses.

The advancement of potential assays for the diagnosis of these diseases as result of current observations in the viral aetiology of many infectious diseases, and considerable progress in our insight of the history and the steps of the viral life cycle, pathogenesis and chemotherapy of infectious diseases.

  • Track 15-1Reprogramming of Viruses
  • Track 15-2Antigen Presenting Cell-Targeted Therapy
  • Track 15-3Antiviral Drugs and Adjuvants
  • Track 15-4Gene Therapy for Viral Infections
  • Track 15-5Antibody Therapy Against Viruses
  • Track 15-6Interleukin immune therapy
  • Track 15-7Viral Aptamers as therapeutics
  • Track 15-8Recombinant Viruses as gene therapy Vectors
  • Track 15-9Synthetic viruses
  • Track 15-10Fusion of viral membrane
  • Track 15-11Next-generation sequencing
  • Track 15-12Viruses are using fats to penetrate a cell
  • Track 15-13Using microarrays in virology
  • Track 15-14Retroviral vectors for gene therapy
  • Track 15-15Adinoviral vectors for gene therapy
  • Track 15-16Immunotherapy as HIV treatment

Viral Infectious diseases range from trivial infections to plagues that alter the course of past events. Since enormous variations acquired by time and sources available for viruses and in their pathogenesis and epidemiology, the most common transmitted diseases worldwide and have been associated with various types of cell cancers. There is no distinct, magic-bullet path to control. HIV, Human papillomavirus (HPV), Alzheimer’s Disease , ZIKA, EBOLA and many deadly viruses inheriting risks to humans has prompted attempts to prevent these infectious diseases using drugs and vaccines, since treatments are of successful for some extent only but not up to the mark. Every virus tries to present its own set of complications. The most impressive advancement so far has involved vaccines. Sanitation and Vector control have been contributing greatly. In addition to various therapeutic antiviral agents are now available for very serious infections, such as HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1) infection and interferon alpha is also available for the therapy of several viral diseases.

  • Track 16-1Antiretroviral Therapy
  • Track 16-2DNA Vaccines and Immunization
  • Track 16-3Dendritic Cell Vaccines
  • Track 16-4Viral Vectors
  • Track 16-5Gene Therapy
  • Track 16-6Viral Immune Therapy
  • Track 16-7Protozoal Viriotherapy
  • Track 16-8Oncolitic Viriotherapy
  • Track 16-9Antiviral drugs and adjuvants
  • Track 16-10Antigen presenting cell-targeted therapy
  • Track 16-11Tumor or Cancer Cell vaccines
  • Track 16-12Active Prophylaxis Vaccines
  • Track 16-13Retroviral Therapy
  • Track 16-14Combination Therapy
  • Track 16-15Killed or Inactivated Viral Vaccines
  • Track 16-16Attenuated Live Viral Vaccines
  • Track 16-17Immunoprophylaxis
  • Track 16-18Cytokines
  • Track 16-19Interferons
  • Track 16-20Antiviral Chemotherapy
  • Track 16-21Passive Prophylaxis Vaccines
  • Track 16-22DNA Immunization

Viral Bioweapons are the viral living organisms which reproduce and replicates within their host victims. They are the biological toxins with an intention to kill humans,animals or plants. High infectivity, High virulence, Non-availabilty of vaccines and efficient delivery system are the main characteristics of a bioweapon. Ebola virus, Rift valley fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Yellow fever virus are the viral agents used as bioweapons. Bioweapons also target fisheries,water based vegetations,target plants to destroy crops and defoliate vegetation in agriculture. Aerial spray tanks and cluster bombs are used as bioweapons for the treatment of wheat blast and rice blast disease. Bioherbicides and Mycoherbicides are used as bioweapons. Bioterrorism is the terrorism which involves the intentional release of biological agents such as viruses.

  • Track 17-1Ebola Virus,Rift Valley Fever Virus
  • Track 17-2Japanese Encephalitis
  • Track 17-3Bioherbicides and Mycoherbicides
  • Track 17-4Bioterrorism and Biosurvelliance
  • Track 17-5Modern Bioweapon Operations
  • Track 17-6Identification of Bioweapons and Genetic Warfare

More than half of the century, scientists, doctors and clinicians have been utilising earlier antibiotics to treat infectious diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria. Even though, emergence of bacterial resistance to antibiotics following widespread clinical, veterinary, and animal or agricultural management being less effective for antibiotics. Recent reports are showing that scientists are facing the threat of superbugs, i.e. pathogenic bacteria resistant to most or all available antibiotics. Pharmaceutical companies being focused on the development of novel products derived from bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents. 

  • Track 18-1Lytic phage as antibacterial therapeutics
  • Track 18-2Phage as antibacterial Nano-medicines
  • Track 18-3Phage application in Agriculture and food industry
  • Track 18-4To eradicate biofilms
  • Track 18-5Clinical Studies
  • Track 18-6Animal Models for Treatment of Infectious Diseases
  • Track 18-7Enzymes as Antibacterial Therapeutic Agents
  • Track 18-8Bacteriophage Tail-Associated Lytic
  • Track 18-9Lysozyme to Treat Bacterial Contamination in Plant Cell Cultures
  • Track 18-10As Curative Agents
  • Track 18-11As Prophylactic Agents
  • Track 18-12Phage DNA Vaccine
  • Track 18-13Phage Display Vaccine
  • Track 18-14To treat bacterial infections in animals and birds
  • Track 18-15Bactericidal to treat human infections
  • Track 18-16Bacterial pathogens

The agricultural inoculants industry when quoted in appraisal is envisaged to reach about $398.56 million by the year 2019, at a CAGR of about 9.5% from 2014.

Plant Virology is a field of Plant Pathology and Environmental sciences. Plant Pathology deals with Viruses & Virus like Pathogens and Diseases. In Plant Pathology major courses are Horticulture and Crop Science, Entomology or Microbiology.  Tobacco mosaic infection (TMV) is a positive-sense single stranded RNA virus that taints an extensive variety of plants, particularly tobacco and different individuals from the family Solanaceae. Most plant viruses are RNA although some 80+ Viruses or DNA Viruses. Basically Plant viruses Genomes are comprises in Coding Region and Non coding Region Coding Region It expresses the proteins required to Viral Infection Cycle

  • Track 19-1Viral vector biology and transmission
  • Track 19-2Tobacco virus
  • Track 19-3Vegetable viruses
  • Track 19-4Wheat and rice viruses
  • Track 19-5Biotechnology in plant viral diseases
  • Track 19-6Plant virus epidemiology, ecology and evolution
  • Track 19-7Host factors involved in virus multiplication
  • Track 19-8Genome Organization & Replication (RNA, dsRNA, DNA Viruses)
  • Track 19-9Sub viral Agents
  • Track 19-10Horticulture and Crop Science
  • Track 19-11Plant Viruses
  • Track 19-12Plants virus-vector interactions
  • Track 19-13Interaction with host
  • Track 19-14Grape wine leaf roll disease

Viral pathogenesis is the series of actions by which viral infections leads to deadly viral diseases as a result of implantation, replication, spread to disease prone sites and shedding of virus into the environment. Effective facilitated factors leads affect pathogenic events includes accessibility of virus with tissue, cell susceptibility for virus multiplication and susceptibility of virus to respective host defenses. In addition natural selection also favors the dominance of low-virulence for most of the virus strains.

  • Track 20-1Mechanisms of Viral Pathogenesis
  • Track 20-2Factors That Affect Pathogenesis
  • Track 20-3Cellular Pathogenesis
  • Track 20-4Tissue Tropism
  • Track 20-5Destructive Enzymes
  • Track 20-6Ramification
  • Track 20-7Congenital Infections
  • Track 20-8Shedding of Virus

Viruses are contributing significant global burden of infectious diseases to all kind of beings. Even though many of these diseases are mild, some viruses are cause of severe diseases in susceptible individuals, such as immune compromised the mal-nourished. Classification of viruses allows scientists to identify and understand morphology, nucleic acid composition, replication of genetic material, type of disease they cause, evolution, interconnection of living beings and the host range of viruses.

  • Track 21-1Enveloped DNA Viruses
  • Track 21-2Poxviridae
  • Track 21-3Non-Enveloped DNA Viruses
  • Track 21-4Hepatitis Viruses
  • Track 21-5Non-Enveloped RNA Viruses
  • Track 21-6Enveloped RNA Viruses
  • Track 21-7Viriods
  • Track 21-8Pseudoviruses
  • Track 21-9Defective viruses
  • Track 21-10Replication
  • Track 21-11Chemical or Nucleic Acid Compostion
  • Track 21-12Morphology
  • Track 21-13Defective viruses
  • Track 21-14Pseudoviruses
  • Track 21-15Viriods
  • Track 21-16Prions
Cellular Virology is a study of viruses on a Cellular level. Viruses are submicroscopic parasites that replicates inside of host cells. They can infect and exploits of all type of life forms-from microorganisms to plants & animals.
Viruses rely on their host to replicate and multiply. This is because viruses are unable to go through cell division, they lack the genetic information that encode the necessary tools for protein synthesis or generation of metabolic energy; hence they rely on their host to replicate and multiply. Using the host cell's machinery the virus generates copies of its genome and produces new viruses for the survival of its kind and the infection of new hosts. The viral replication process varies depending on the virus's genome.
  • Track 22-1Role of Viruses in Evolution
  • Track 22-2Cell biology of viruses
  • Track 22-3 Cell biology in virology/microbiology
  • Track 22-4Caliciviruses Molecular
  • Track 22-5Norovirus Epidemiology
  • Track 22-6Virus-Host Interaction and Cellular Receptors of Caliciviruses